In 1920, radio was first developed, primarily for use by the military, strictly for sendingHistory of the Media-Old Radios messages from one place to another. David Sternoff, the then-president of RCA, first had the idea to sell radio sets to consumers, or what were then called radio receivers. However, consumers needed a reason to buy radios, so RCA was the first to establish radio stations all over the country. Between 1920 and 1922, 400 radio stations were set up, starting with KBKA in Pittsburgh. Stations were also established by universities, newspapers, police departments, hotels, and labor unions.
By 1923, there were 600 radio stations across the United States, and $83 million worth of sets had been sold.
United Fruit was one of the original global corporations. One among the first to advertise on the radio. The AT&T division of RCA first thought about selling time on the air to companies. This marked the start of ‘toll broadcasting. ‘ WEAF was the first station to operate this way, causing widespread outrage, and accusation of ‘polluting the airwaves. ‘
Television?? More Considerations
By the late 20’s radio advertising had advanced in a dramatic way. It was now dominated by advertising agencies who took supervision of the schedules by buying the available air time and selling it to their customers. They also handled the creative elements of the commercials and programs and in fact even created entire series that were intended to sell one product or another. These efforts paved the way for the origin of television advertising that would begin in just a few more decades.
The advertising agencies determined that the best way to reach consumers with a clear message would be by creating shows that featured a single product or a range of products from a single company after study and many surveys. From this conception arose the typical television shows of the 1950’s including such titles as Kraft Television Theater, Coke Time, and Colgate Comedy Hour. These television programs were produced by advertising agencies for their customers rather than the studios as is common practice currently, as with radio.
This practice worked really good for the clients for a while. But as the television gained more popularity and there were more people watching it, the television networks were raising the costs of doing things (I.e. More eyeballs = more total dollars spent to achieve them all) and this upward pressure on the price of delivering a production over the television (plus the ever increasing costs of creating new content) forced a massive change in the relation of all the parties: the advertising agencies, the clients /sponsors and the television networks. A solution had to be found if this very powerful advertising medium was to continue to be cost effective for the sponsors.
Because of this controversy, the practice of selling advertising time was called ‘trade name publicity. ‘ Sponsors linked their name with a program on the air, rather than advertising a particular product in a 30 second ‘commercial’ as we know it today.
AT&T was not making any money from broadcasting at the time since they only made transmitters, not receivers. They only made money when new radio stations bought the equipment required to broadcast. They didn’t make money from consumers buying radios.
AT&T also started the practice of paying performers for their time on the air, rather than only volunteers. This was standard practice for radio content up until that point.
In 1926, RCA set up the first radio network, NBC. They decided it was most effective and efficient to produce shows in New York City, and then link the main radio station with stations all across the country, connected by AT&T (another RCA company) phone lines. (Now television networks are linked by satellite to their affiliates).
History of the Media In 1927, the second network was formed. It was CBS, started by William Paley. Paley was the first person to think that networks could make money strictly from advertising, not even getting that participate in the sales of radios. CBS didn’t make radios, like AT&T. From the start, they made their money from selling advertising.
The rising of radio networks caused the Radio Act of 1927 to be passed, which established the FRC, or what is today known as the FCC, to allocate broadcast licenses. The need for such an organization was brought on by the fact that airwaves are limited resources. Broadcasting itself is a scarce public resource. By the 1930 ‘s, the structure of radio have been established by the commercial format, although advertising never dominated radio like it would television later on.
In the 1920’s and ’30 ‘s, radio programs were divided into two groups. Sponsored shows, which had advertisers, and unsponsored shows. This did not. The radio station paid for the unsponsored shows. The sponsored shows, on the other hand, were created entirely by the company sponsoring the show; advertisers were completely in charge of the radio station’s content. The content became advertising. Radio set the precedent for television, in that the same companies that controlled radio early on went on to control television.
NBC executive Sylvester L.’ Pat’ Weaver came up a with a settlement that would work and would likewise be very favorable to the networks. He introduced the ‘magazine concept’ of television advertising. In this arrangement, the sponsors would purchase blocks of time (typically one to two minutes) in a show rather than be a sponsor for a full show. This idea would allow a wide range of sponsors-up to four was the number imagined-for a show. The networks would now control the content as no one advertiser would ‘own’ a particular show, like a magazine.
Blacklists: From almost the beginning of television, many writers, actors, and directors were found to be pro-Communist and/or un-American.
Certain topics were totally off-limits at the time for television, particularly issues of race relations in the 1960’s. Overall, networks weren’t satisfied with the political situation for television in the 1960 ‘s, both in the area of the blacklists, and noting that when every show had one sponsor, that sponsor controlled the entire program. Networks preferred to monitor the program, by way of moving to multiple sponsors/advertisers, where networks would retain supervision of the show, and advertisers would buy time in between the programming.
Discovery of fraud in the quiz shows on television. Quiz shows were extremely popular at the time, and were liked by the sponsors, the networks, and the viewers alike. It turned out, however, that quiz shows were largely fixed. Charles Van Doren on ’21’ became a huge star due to his repeated wins, until it came out that the whole matter had been fixed. In the case of’ The $64, 000 Question,’ the owner of Revlon was personally hand-selecting the winners and losers on the show.
This might be a counterintuitive concept for some. The networks, which own television, areHistory of the Media-Old Television the buyers of shows, not the sellers. On the other hand, they sell our eyeballs, so to speak, to advertisers. Networks want the greatest possible profit from buying and selling time, both viewers’ time, and advertisers’ time.
The primary measure of television ratings, which determine the cost of that time being bought and sold, is AC Nielsen, an independent company which contains information as to who watches what on television. Currently, about 4, 000 households are used to represent the national viewing of television. In the 1980 ‘s, only 1, 200 households were used. Some households have an electronic device installed on their television which tracks what they watch, while others keep a diary of viewing habits.
LCD televisions are available in various sizes. If you go out onto the market of course the bigger screen will attract you. But the problem with these screens is that they encounter some pixilation. It means while watching a film or any serial you might see the series of tiny square boxes which makes images unclear and ruins the complete excitement of watching a television. On the other hand if you select television to be too small then the fun of watching the television might get missed because the screen isn’t that exciting. There is a thumb rule of selecting the television which said that the viewing distance of a television shouldn’t be greater than three to four times of the magnitude of the screen. Hence, for a perfect television experience 32 inch television is best suited.
Picture resolution is another factor of selecting a television especially an LCD or LED TV. There are fundamentally three types of resolutions which are 720p, 1080i and 1080p. Out of these three 1080p is one of whom delivers highest quality of video whereas 720p comes at the second. Most of the LED televisions are of 1080p hence if you take a television. If you buy 42 inch television which is LED you’ll get amazing picture quality. These televisions are relatively expensive but they do justice to the amount of money that you have spent to own them. So, if you’re in the marketplace and searching for a good television so you can also buy LED TV because these are the televisions that offer you the value of your money.
There are two measures for determining a show’s audience. One is the rating. The other is the share.
Share: Percentage of those watching television at a particular time who’re tuned into a particular show.
The share is always higher than the rating. Ratings are more important for advertisers. Share is more important to the networks.
It’s important to note how many factors can skew the results. Shows cost producers much more than the networks typically pay them for those shows. The way for producers to make money is by getting the networks to extend the show, in order to obtain a shot at making money from syndication on other channels, also knows as reruns. That is the case when individual stations (say for example, the Miami affiliate of ABC wants to carry Seinfeld), buy the rights to a show from the producers of that show. Shows that last only one season, for the more part, lose millions of dollars. One of the most important factors in whether shows will be renewed or not is their rating.
This brings us to how ratings can be skewed. For example, if a show has a 20 share, and it needs a 25 share to be renewed for another season, what might the producers do? In principle, they need to convince another 5 percent of the people watching television when their show is on to watch their show; this is no simple task, as that involves convincing millions of people. However, since the ratings are built on those 4, 000 Nielsen households, that means that they could convince just 200 Nielsen households to watch their show. This would increase the share from 20 to 25. This is why Nielsen households must be kept entirely secret from the networks. When the Nielsen households have leaked to the networks, one way which they got people to watch their show was by offering viewers a small sum of money for filling out a survey about a commercial which they were told would play only during a particular show. Since they had to watch that channel while their show was on, this would boost the share.
In short, the job of television programs is to bring together our time as a product. These they then sell to advertisers. Programs have to sustain the advertising, delivering viewers in the best possible frame of mind for buying when the time for the commercials comes. This brings us to the Golden Age of Television.
The 1950’s are considered the’ Golden Age of Television. ‘ During this time, something called the’ Anthology Series,’ where different actors each week took part in a show gained History of the Media-I Love Lucypopularity across the board…that is, with everyone except for advertisers. The anthology series format was not right for advertisers, as it covered topics which involved psychological confrontations which didn’t leave the viewers in the right state of mind for buying the products shown to them between program segments. The subject matter of the anthology series was of the kind that undermined the ads, about making them seem fraudulent.
This brought up the issue of what to network executives actually want shows to do? The answer isn’t to view a program that makes them feel good, makes them laugh, or excites them, but rather to view the television in a unit amount of time. With so many new shows being proposed, standards began to be deliberately, or unintentionally, laid out for what shows could and could not do. Risks could only be made at the beginning and/or end of shows. Laugh tracks were conceived to tell the audience when to laugh. Programs began being tested with audiences prior to being put on television and/or radio. Show writers now had to write shows that would test well.
Naturally, this caused a lot of the same elements and themes to appear in all shows. This was the beginning of recombinant television culture, where the same elements are endlessly repeated, recombined, and mixed.
This same culture is what perpetuated the notion that people watch television, not specific shows. While people certainly choose to watch certain shows instead of others, people less commonly choose to watch television instead of other things. People watch television. Regardless of what was on, television viewing rates were extremely stable.